Neurological Diseases are diseases that affect the nervous system, i.e. the brain, spinal cord, nerves and the nerve complexes. Since nerves are essential for every bodily action and functioning of the organs, the smallest of trauma to the nervous system or the onset of any condition that affects the nerves can indirectly initiate Neurological Diseases. Today, more than 600 types of neurologic diseases have been identified. Some of these are common and are found across the globe, across all genders and age-groups, while some are quite rare and are still being understood.
The more common of Neurological Diseases include diseases induced due to genetic reasons. These are also called congenital neurological diseases. A common example of this is Huntington’s disease and Muscular Dystrophy. Other types of Neurologic Diseases include diseases where the structural progress of the nervous system is impaired. An example of this is Spina Bifida wherein the development of the spinal nerve and hence, the nerve plexus around it is severely impaired. Neurological Diseases also include Degenerative diseases. These are diseases where the nerve cells are diseased and undergo a self-sustained process of gradual decay. Most of the neurological diseases that involve a gradual progression in the demented state of an individual are grouped under degenerative Neurologic Diseases. Common examples of such diseases include Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.
Many times, Neurological Diseases are caused by an underling disease such as diseases of the blood vessels. When the blood vessels connected to the brain are suffering from an infection, there is a greater likelihood of Neurological Diseases surfacing. This is commonly seen when an individual suffers a stroke or an injury that tends to impair the immune system, making the body more vulnerable to being invaded by microorganisms. Neurological Diseases are also caused by serious injuries to the brain or the spinal cord. Common examples of such Neurological Diseases include chronic seizures. Other conditions like cancer or infections like meningitis can severely damage the nervous system and initiate onset of Neurological Diseases.
Epilepsy: Common Neurological Diseases
Epilepsy is essentially a brain disorder and causes the patient to have seizures. These seizures can be either mild or very severe and even prove to be life-threatening. Many specialists like to define epilepsy as the propensity to have continued or recurring seizures. Every seizure is actually an uncontrolled nervous system reaction that involves impaired functioning of the nerve cells, called neurons. Here, the brain cannot regulate the kind of signals it transmits to the body, inducing uncontrolled bodily movements that appear like fits or a series of violent movements. High intensity epileptic seizures are known to cause serious damage to the patient. They can induce painful muscle spasms and total loss of consciousness. Epilepsy can be caused by many reasons, i.e.. any of the above-listed reasons but extended illness or a serious brain injury is regarded as the more common reason. This Neurological Disease is diagnosed through a series of brain scans.
Parkinson’s Disease: Common Neurological Diseases
Parkinson’s disease is also called ‘shaky palsy’ since the patient shows extensive, uncontrolled muscle movements. In Parkinson’s, the patient suffers from an abnormal way in which brain chemicals are routed. A very important chemical, called Dopamine, isn’t absorbed properly and the dopamine receptors don’t function in the required manner. This causes partial loss of coordination of bodily movements. Common symptoms of Parkinson’s include:
- Trembling in the arms, hands, legs and face
- Stiffness of arms
- Slowed movements
- Poor body posture and loss of balance